It goes without saying how important hormones are when we start any kind of sports practice.
Hormones are chemical substances that are poured into the blood to perform certain functions. Certain authors affirm that, with adaptation to training, changes are produced in the personality of the individual, fruit of the release of hormones with exercise.
The nervous system secretes a series of glands, endocrine glands, which are released into the blood when the trained individual begins to practice, and others, called exocrines, which have specific functions and act as markers in target tissues of the body.
With the activation of the former, the endocrines, substances that influence sport are poured into the blood from the adrenal glands, which are found in the abdominal cavity, the pancreatic islets (pancreas), the testicles and the ovaries, in the case of women. these glands poured hormones into the blood, and then I will explain what type of hormones are involved and what implications they have when we are practicing physical exercise.
GH, commonly known as Growth Hormone, is responsible for the muscular growth of the athlete, which implies an improvement in strength and, as a consequence, performance. Hence, sports in which strength is predominant, such as boxing and wrestling sports, are sometimes damaged because practitioners consume them exogenously. This hormone is also accused of being responsible for the athlete’s weight loss.
The Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), associated with the absorption of liquids in the bladder of the athlete, increases by 800% with exercise! That is to say, when we start an exercise at 40% intensity, it is reasonable that you feel like going to the bathroom.
Prolactics has effects on highly trained individuals, mainly in runners above the anaerobic threshold, i.e. long distance runners. Moreover, this hormone has provoked a lot of controversy in women’s sports, accusing them of being responsible for amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) and oligomenorrhea (delay in the first one). Mainly those affected are gymnasts and long-distance runners, or athletes who train daily at high intensities.
Opioids are released after a response to high intensity training, and like some drigas that are consumed artificially, cause pleasure and reduce the sensation of fatigue to the athlete. That’s why we hear that sport is a drug and that it “hooks”.
Others, of lesser relevance, are Cortisol, which is released through exposure to very stressful situations, such as competition; Thyroid Hormones, which raise the basal metabolism, and Adrelanila and Noradrenalina, very important after starting a physical exercise.
While the former causes contractions in the heart, the latter is involved in exercise metabolism. These are released after intense emotions, or when we have fear or stress, during sports practice. The latest studies affirm that very intense sports after a long time of realization, can exhaust the release of adrelanina.
Dopamine and Categolamines have effects similar to adrelanine during exercise; and Insulin, or blood sugar, is a hormone that decreases as we exercise. Finally, estradiol interferes in ovarian processes of sportswomen after the practice of 8 weeks of moderate exercise.
To conclude, these are some effects, in short, of the hormones that are released in the body of the athlete after the appearance of physical exercise or training.